Essays can be of any one of many types. One of the more difficult ones to write is the cause and effect. It requires the writer to establish a causal relationship between two things that appears logical to an impartial reader. There is very little room for flowery language to cover up weak connections. Only the most skilled debater can accomplish that. For others, the process can be much harder. If you find yourself floundering, ask yourself the following questions to get back on track.
Consider increased positivity in mood being the result of pet ownership. If you need to write this paper will, it must be established what qualifies as an increase in positive mood. You should be able to state that certain markers like interest in formerly enjoyed activities were clearly higher or something else that is similarly measurable.
In our example above we are attempting to relate pet ownership to greater happiness. You need to be just as clear on what pet ownership means. Does it count if the person being considered is merely in the presence of someone else’s pet frequently. Would all pets count or only those that are capable of showing affection? Make sure that all of the lines are clear to the reader.
In our example, some of the people who had elevated moods may have recently started a round of antidepressants or become involved in loving relationships. This would be just as good a reason for the shift in mood.
If your argument for a causal relationship is to stick, there must be a reason that the alternative just wasn’t good enough. You could point to the group being specially selected so that none of those other factors was occurring when the pet was acquired. There are some things that cannot be factored in but you can try.
This should give you a good start.